WHO (World Health Organization) estimated that 80 percent of people worldwide rely on herbal medicines for some aspect of their primary health care needs. According to WHO, around 21,000 plant species have the potential for being used as medicinal plants.
These medicinal plants are also used as food, flavonoid, medicine or perfume and also in certain spiritual activities.
- The ashwagandha plant is a small shrub with yellow flowers which is the most important herbs in ayurveda based on the principle of natural healing.
- The botanical name of Ashwagandha is Withania somnifera which is found in India & Southeast Asia.
- Ashwagandha consist of range of different classes of chemical moieties such as alkaloids, steroidal lactones & flavonoids which is responsible for various biological activities.
- Ashwagandha as adaptogen helps to reduce stress.
-Ashwagandha improves sleep quality & treats insomnia.
- Ashwagandha enhances testosterone levels & may also have some benefits for male fertility. Ashwagandha improves overall sperm parameters.
- shwagandha enhances cell-mediated immunity, improves memory, brain function & nervous system.
- Ashwagandha has strong antioxidant qualities that aid in preventing cellular damage brought on by free radicals.
- Grape (Vitis vinifera) belongs to family Vitaceae. The fruit of the grape is widely enjoyed around the world.
- USA, China, Italy, and Europe are the major grape producers.
- The dietary supplement grape seed extract, which is made from the seeds of wine grapes, is promoted as a treatment for a number of ailments, including venous insufficiency (a condition in which the veins in the legs have trouble returning blood to the heart), promoting wound healing, and reducing inflammation.
- Proanthocyanidins, a type of polyphenol found in abundance in grape skin and seeds, can be used as a functional component to improve a variety of health conditions by enhancing the body's natural biochemical processes.
- Grape seed extract helps protect from a wide range of illnesses, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and microbiological infections.
- Antioxidant properties of grape seed extract protects the cells against oxidative stress.
- Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins promotes bone formation.
- Grape seed extract supports your brain as it ages.
- The plant M. pruriens, also referred to as "velvet bean," is a robust annual climbing legume that was widely cultivated as a green vegetable crop in southern China and eastern India.
- Due to the presence of L-Dopa, M. Pruriens extracts have a wide range of pharmacological effects, including as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic characteristics.
- Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) is a well-known herbal remedy used to treat neurological problems, male infertility, and as an aphrodisiac.
- Mucuna Pruriens is an established herbal drug used for the management of male infertility, nervous disorders, and also as an aphrodisiac.
- Mucuna pruriens extract is a significant source of natural anti-oxidant, which may be helpful in preventing various oxidative stresses.
- L-Dopa, the dopamine precursor, can pass through the blood-brain barrier and turn into dopamine, regaining neurotransmission.
- Safed Musli, also known as Chlorophytum borivilianum (family: Lilliaceae), is a rare and valuable medicinal herb.
- Numerous biological properties of safed musli have been reported, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antidiabetic properties.
- Safed musli root contains steroidal and triterpenoidal saponins, sapogenins and fructans which function as medical agents and serve essential medical applications, among many others.
- The root of safed musli has been used to treat erectile dysfunction, oligozoospermia, and male impotence.
- Safed musli acts as immunostimulatory which improves innate, humoral as well as cell-mediated immunity.
- Safed musli reduces blood glucose levels.
- Safed musli is thought to be a remedy for Natal and postnatal issues, a diabetes cure, and Arthritis.
- Safed musli is frequently used as a general health tonic and for preventing ageing.
- Date palm is the most common fruit in the Middle East & North Africa, which is frequently consumed and has long been utilized in traditional medicine.
- Date palm fruit rich in dietary fibers, sugar, protein, vitamins, minerals, flavonoid & phenolic compounds.
- Flavonoids are well known for protecting tissues from harmful impacts and inhibiting the enzymes that generate free radicals.
- Date fruit is used to treat intestinal disorders, fever, bronchitis, and wound healing.
-Date palm as a potent antioxidant reduces the risks of infertility in both males & females.
- Date palm has potential to lower LDL-Cholesterol and thus reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
- Panax ginseng commonly known as Asian or Korean ginseng is most frequently and extensively used species of ginseng.
- Panax ginseng is native to Korea, China & Japan has been used for many years as a traditional medicine for spiritlessness and fatigue.
- The primary active ingredients in P. ginseng are known as ginsenosides, which have a variety of therapeutic effects including antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxation, antiallergy & antidiabetic.
- Ginseng as an antioxidant regulates blood circulation and reduces high blood pressure.
- The effectiveness of ginseng includes regulation of vasomotor function, improvement of lipid profiles, improvement in cardiac function, and decrease in platelet adhesion.
- It exhibits neuroprotective properties to stop neuron degeneration as well as neurotrophic benefits in memory and learning.
- Ginseng boosts male fertility and improves sexual performance
- Curcuma longa, an herbaceous perennial with rhizomes, belongs to the ginger family.
- The primary biologically active polyphenolic component of turmeric is curcumin, which is mostly present in the plant's roots and rhizomes (Curcuma longa).
- Due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antimutagenic, and antibacterial characteristics, curcuma longa has been used traditionally as a medicine in Asian nations.
-Demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bis-demethoxycurcumin are two other curcuminoids found in turmeric in lesser quantities than curcumin (BDMC).
- Curcumin prevents arthritis, especially osteoarthritis.
- Curcumin as an antioxidant prevents tissue damage from free radicals.
- Curcumin supports healthy cholesterol, blood sugar levels.
- Curcumin protects liver from toxic compounds and also reduces the risk of liver fibrosis & cirrhosis.
- Curcumin has various cardiovascular benefits.
- Curcumin helps in the treatment of metabolic syndrome, anxiety, hyperlipidemia and muscular soreness.
- Boswellia serrata is commonly known as Salai/Salai guggul, which is a moderate to large sized branching tree of family Burseraceae (Genus Boswellia).
- Boswellia serrata is native to India, Northern Africa & Middle East.
- Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand & Chhattisgarh are the main sources of Boswellia serrata in India.
- From the gum resin of the Boswellia serrata plant, boswellic acid (BA), a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules, is derived which is responsible for inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes.
- Boswellia serrata is a potent anti-inflammatory agent.
- Boswellia serrata prevents osteoarthritis, joint pain by inhibition of both inflammatory processes and cartilage degeneration.
- Boswellia serrata may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory bowel conditions like Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC).
- Boswellic acid is an anti-asthmatic agent that may be useful in the treatment of allergic asthma.
- A standardized extract (Bioperine®) made from the dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. containing 95% piperine in the form of 1-piperopiperidine, which stimulates the thermogenic action in the epithelial cells of the small intestine.
- Clinical research is being carried out & found that Bioperine improves the bioavailability of the nutrients.
- Bioperine as an adjuvant supports knee pain relief, mood enhancement, reducing fatigue, and healthy weight management.
- It also helps in the treatment of diabetes, headaches, and epilepsy
- Black pepper as an antioxidant reduces oxidative stress & modulates the enzyme systems functioning in the body.
- Black pepper is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that prevents degenerative disorders like rheumatoid arthritis.
- Black pepper has strong antibacterial properties.
- Piperine enhances the functionality of gastrointestinal tract.
- Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum, family Fabaceae) is a highly common annual leguminous plant, which is produced in huge quantities throughout the Indian subcontinent.
- Fenugreek is native to India, China, Iran, Egypt, Turkey, France, Spain, North Africa, Morocco, and Argentina.
- Fenugreek seeds are a good source of soluble fibers and have been used for centuries in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine for a variety of health advantages, including anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, and women's health.
- Fenugreek enhances testosterone levels and heightens libido.
- Fenugreek improves breast milk production among postnatal mothers.
- Fenugreek as a potent antidiabetic agent lowers the blood glucose in prediabetes.
- Fenugreek as an antioxidant helps to neutralize free radicals & prevents tissue damage from oxidative stress.
- Fenugreek boosts energy & improves sexual parameters in ageing male.
- The genus Tribulus is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family.
- Tribulus is an annual shrub that can be found in countries like India, China, the southern United States, Mexico, Spain, and Bulgaria that have Mediterranean, subtropical, and desert climates.
- Tribulus contains a range of active compounds that are important for medicine, including alkaloids, steroidal saponins, flavonoids, and flavanol glycosides.
- Tribulus boosts the body's natural levels of testosterone, which enhances male sexual performance and aids in muscular growth.
- Tribulus has the potential to reduce elevated blood glucose level in patients with diabetes.
-T. terrestris is effective in the propulsion of urinary stones because of its strong diuretic and contractile properties.
-Tribulus has a significant impact in the treatment of numerous cardiac disorders, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, cerebral arteriosclerosis, and thrombosis.
- The seed plant Ginkgo biloba (GB), one of the oldest, is frequently referred to as a "living fossil."
- Ginkgo biloba is native to China but it is now grown all over the world.
- The primary components of GB extract include terpenoids, flavonol glycosides, and Proanthocyanidins.
- Traditional Chinese medicine has used extract from GB leaves for generations to treat a variety of conditions, including circulatory issues, asthma, tinnitus, vertigo, and cognitive issues.
- In cognitive impairment and dementia, ginkgo biloba extract seems to be able to preserve or halt loss in cognition, function & behaviour.
- Ginkgo biloba enhances peripheral circulation and brain blood flow, which helps to alleviate vertigo and improve memory.
- By scavenging lipid radicals, ginkgo biloba extracts were effective at preventing oxidative damage to membranes.
- Ginkgo biloba is also found to be potent antidepressant.
- Bacopa monnieri also known as Brahmi belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family, has long been used in Ayurveda to improve memory.
- Bacopa monnieri is native to India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Florida, Hawaii, and several other southern states of the United States.
- The major bioactive components of Bacopa are several alkaloids and saponins (steroidal saponins bacosides A).
- Bacopa monnieri enhances cognitive abilities such as understanding, memory, and recall.
- Bacopa monnieri possesses excellent antidepressant effect.
- Bacopa monnieri as an antioxidant reduces oxidative stress in the aging brain.
- Bacopa monnieri has strong anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes.
- Celastrus paniculatus Wild (Celastraceae) is a large, woody, climbing shrub, commonly known as “Jyotishmati.”
- Jyotishmati is distributed all over India & also found in middle & South Andamans.
- Celastrus paniculatus contains sesquiterpenes, the alkaloids celastrine, celapanine, celapanigine, and celapagine, as well as polyalcohol.
- Since ancient times, Jyotishmati seeds and oil have been used to cure conditions like epilepsy, dementia, facial paralysis, amnesia, anxiety, sciatica, and cognitive dysfunctions.
- Jyotishmati has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.
- Jyotishmati also possesses significant antinociceptive activity.
- Jyotishmati is utilized as a brain tonic since it has a positive impact on memory and intelligence.
- Jyotishmati helps in the treatment of arthritis & gout.
- Jyotishmati also showed potent relaxant effect on ileum.
- Valeriana wallichii (VW) is a rhizome herb of the genus Valeriana and belongs to the family Valerianaceae also known as Tagar.
- Valerian is native to India (temperate Himalayas), China & Nepal.
- Valerian wallichii rhizomes and roots produce a volatile oil called valerianic oil that contains terpineol, isovalerenic acid, and valerenic acid.
- Valerian is effective as it possesses tranquilizer, antispasmodic and hypotensive activity.
- Valeriana enhances sleep quality and promotes deep sleep. As a result, it helps well to treat insomnia.
- Valerian as antidepressant brings calmness to the mind, reduces stress and improves mood.
- Valerian relieves stomach pain and cramps by relaxing the muscles and preventing the development of gas.
- Vaccinium corymbosum also known as Highbush blueberry, belongs to the Ericaceae (or heather) family.
- Blueberry is native to eastern north America.
- The main bioactive components of blueberries are Anthocyanins, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid, flavonols and tannins.
- Because of their abundant polyphenolic components, which have a high in vitro antioxidant potential, blueberries were first popularized as a "super fruit."
- Blueberry with abundant anthocyanins can boost rhodopsin regeneration, which can enhance vision.
- Blueberry is a powerful antioxidant which enhances motor and cognitive abilities while preventing age-related neurodegenerative disorders.
- Consuming blueberries helps to promote vascular health, avoid oxidative stress, and reduce inflammation and kidney damage.
- Lutemax 2020 is a patented extract that contains all three nutritionally important macular carotenoids—lutein, RR-zeaxanthin, and RS (meso)-zeaxanthin.
- Lutemax is derived naturally from marigold flowers.
- The carotenoids, or plant-produced pigments, lutein and zeaxanthin are members of the xanthophyll family.
- Due to the fact that humans cannot synthesize or consume these molecules, they are crucial for the proper operation of some body organs (eye, skin, heart, intestines).
- Lutein and zeaxanthin may help slow the progression of eye conditions such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cataracts.
- Supplementing with macular carotenoids considerably lowers stress levels, cortisol levels, and signs of poor mental and physical health.
- Lutemax contributes in a variety of beneficial mechanisms, including immune system activation, alteration of intracellular signalling pathways, control of the cell cycle, apoptosis, regulation of growth factors, and aid in the prevention of viral infections.
- Punica granatum is commonly known as pomegranate, belongs to the Punicaceae family.
- Pomegranate is native to Iran, the Himalayas in northern India, China, USA & throughout the Mediterranean region.
- The main bioactive components of Pomegranate are hydrolysable tannins, condensed tannins, flavonols, anthocyanins, and phenolic & organic acids.
- Pomegranate has long been used as a traditional treatment for respiratory disorders, acidosis, dysentery, microbiological infections, diarrhoea, and helminth infections.
- Pomegranate as an antioxidant significantly inhibits osteoarthritis and prevents the degradation of collagen.
- Pomegranate slows the development of atherosclerosis and the ensuing cardiovascular events.
- Pomegranate exhibits anti-lice and anti-dandruff activity that stimulates the transition of hair follicles from telogen to anagen phase, hence promoting hair growth.
- Pomegranate helps improve the immune system.
- Bilberry is a low-growing shrub which belongs to the genus Vaccinium
- Vaccinium myrstillus is commonly known as bilberry, European blueberry, whortberry & huckleberry.
- Bilberry is rich in anthocyanins & native to Northern Europe, North America & Asia.
- Bilberry improves visual function during retinal inflammation.
- Bilberry lowers blood glucose & also shows anti-inflammatory & lipid-lowering effects.
- Bilberry enhances antioxidant defense & reduce oxidative stress.
- Bilberry protects blood vessels & improve blood circulation.
- Blueberries can enhance motor and cognitive abilities while preventing age-related neurodegenerative disorders.
- Actaea racemosa is commonly known as Black cohosh, which is a perennial plant belongs to the family Ranunculaceae.
- Actaea racemosa is native to Eastern parts of North America & Canada.
- The main bioactive components of Actaea are phenolic compounds, including ferulic acid, isoferulic acid & caffeic acid derivatives, cycloartane triterpene glycosides and phenylpropanoids.
- Actaea racemosa enhances osteoprotective effects, especially in osteoblasts in postmenopausal women.
- Actaea racemosa has direct estrogenic activity; because of this, menopausal women frequently use it since it has effects that are similar to those of oestrogen, such as easing hot flashes and lowering depression.
-Actaea racemosa influences the improvement of the brain's metabolism and general functioning.
- Actaea lessens inflammation and pain.
- Actaea is also effective in treating various conditions like diabetes, neoplasia, sarcopenia, cardiac insufficiency, obesity, etc.
- Asparagus racemosus belongs to family Asparagaceae and found at low altitudes throughout India.
- Asparagus is commonly known as Satamuli, Satawari means “Curer of a hundred diseases”.
- Satawari - The primary Ayurvedic rejuvenation remedy for women.
- Asparagus is native to Sri Lanka, India (the Himalayas), Asia, Australia & Africa.
- Asparagus promotes milk secretion during laction.
- Asparagus is used to treat duodenal ulcer illness and parinama sula, an inflammatory ailment of the stomach.
- Asparagus improves memory and fights against amnesia.
- Asparagus strengthens the female reproductive organs & enhances maturation of the eggs into follicles.
- Asparagus improves mental performance, vitality, and lifespan while also being used to treat neurological diseases, dyspepsia, tumours, inflammation, neuropathy, and hepatopathy.
- Vitex agnus castus is a shrub that belongs to the Verbenaceae family and originates from the Mediterranean and western Asia.
- The main bioactive constituents of Vitex agnus is flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, iridoids & essential oils.
- Vitex agnus boosts luteinizing hormone (LH), which raises progesterone and prolactin levels while decreasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels.
- Vitex agnus controls the menstrual cycle and treats some menopausal symptoms as well as hormonally related acne.
- Vitex agnus also lessens premenstrual symptom, tension and anxiety.
- Vitex agnus enhances memory and learning & increases the estrogen levels in hippocampus.
- Age-related reductions in beta cells, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia are all improved by vitex agnus.
- One of the most well-known medicinal plants in the Fabaceae family (also known as Leguminosae) is Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has been valued for its ethnopharmacological properties since ancient times.
- Licorice includes a variety of phytochemicals, including isoflavones, glabrin A and B, 18-glycyrrhetinic acid, and glycyrrhizin.
- Licorice is native to the Mediterranean region, it is now also found in China, India, and Russia.
- Licorice is a potent antioxidant to suppress microsomal lipid peroxidation.
- Licorice helps mouth and stomach ulcers heal.
- The treatment of disorders of the upper respiratory tract and digestive system is beneficially impacted by G. glabra.
- Licorice has the potential to affect sexual development as well as ovarian, hypothalamic, and pituitary gland function and oestrous cycle.
- Licorice exhibits antitussic and expectorant properties.
- For the treatment of depressive disorders, licorice may have therapeutic value.
- Cissus quadrangularisis is a perennial herb, which belongs to the family Vitaceae and found in tropical & subtropical xeric wood.
- Cissus quadrangularisis is native to India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Java & West Africa.
- The major constituents of Hadjod are flavanoides, triterpenoids, stilbene derivatives like quadrangularin-A, resveratrol and piceatannol, iridoids and phytosterols like β- sitosterol and calcium.
- Cissus quadrangularisis prevents osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.
- Cissus quadrangularisis is used for scurvy, debilitating menstrual disorders, otorrhoea and epistaxis.
- Cissus quadrangularisis promotes faster healing of fractured jaw bones by easing pain, edoema, and fracture mobility.
- Cissus quadrangularisis helps cure anemia, eye conditions, piles, and acid reflux associated with gastritis.
- Cissus quadrangularisis has a mild to moderate estrogenic effect that stimulates sexual drive and behaviour.
- Centella asiatica (CA), a clonal, perennial herbaceous creeper belonging to the family Umbellifere (Apiceae) is found throughout India growing in moist places up to an altitude of 1800 m.
- Centella asiatica is a very important medicinal herb, which is commonly known as mandukparni, Indian pennywort, Jalbrahmi or Gotu kola.
- Centella asiatica is native to India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Java, China, South Africa, South Pacific & Eastern Europe.
- Centella asiatica is prescribed for the treatment of many skin disorders, including leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, amenorrhea, and diseases of the female genitourinary tract, as well as for reducing anxiety and enhancing cognition.
- The herb Centella asiatica is frequently used as a blood purifier, to lower blood pressure, to improve memory, and to lengthen life.
- Centella asiatica is an anti-inflammatory which contributes to wound healing and vascular effects by preventing the formation of collagen at the wound site.
- Humans primarily obtain isoflavones through their diet from soy and soy products, which are primarily composed of daidzein and genistein.
- When ingested Soy Isoflavones, they exert estrogenic and/or antiestrogenic effects.
- The 12 distinct isoforms of soy isoflavones can be split into four different chemical structures: aglycone, glucoside, acetylglucoside, and malon.
- Isoflavones are thought to be chemoprotective and can be used as an alternative therapy for a variety of hormonal illnesses, including menopausal symptoms, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis.
- Isoflavonoids as dietary antioxidants alleviates menopause symptoms such as irritability, depression, and hot flashes or preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
- Soy isoflavone is beneficial for skin health as it improves the skin elasticity.
- Phyllanthus emblica is a euphorbiaceous plant, which belongs to the
family Euphorbiaceae, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or
- Phyllanthus emblica is native to India, China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka & the Malay Peninsula.
- Phyllanthus emblica fruit has expectorant, purgative, spasmolytic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic properties.
- The antioxidant content of Phyllanthus emblica, which includes gallic acid, ascorbic acid, and phenolic compounds, supports the body's immune and digestive systems.
- Phyllanthus emblica enhances skin elasticity and hydration, reduces skin wrinkles & lightens the skin Colour.
- Scurvy and pulmonary tuberculosis are both treated with fresh emblic fruit because it contains a lot of ascorbic acid.